oped, and governmental resources so small that the prospect for establishin governmental control over the territory, much less using government as a< instrument for accelerating development, is very limited. So long as govern ment officers have little local contact, citizens must rely more heavily 01 informal local networks to settle disputes. The high cost of governing undei populated regions, therefore, tends to preserve systems of local justice. In th absence of substantial external support to finance the expansion of tli bureaucratic network and the development of modern communication, th governments of many of these states are not likely to be able to extend thei writ much beyond the capital city and a few town and rural areas witJ concentrated populations. Areas of low density in much of Africa are thu likely to remain ungoverned for a long period of time. And so long as the; remain ungoverned, they will remain poor and underdeveloped.
Regional Inequities. There is a strong tendency for the most densely pop ulated areas with growing populations within a country to attract even mori industry and more population. Clark, in an analysis of the relationship be tween population change and the location of industries, concludes that thi effects, particularly in the early stages of economic growth, are to increasi income inequalities between regions (31, p. 337). In the classic, monumenta study Population Redistribution and Economic Growth, Kuznets and his as sociates show the relationship between regional economic development am population movements in the United States (45). If these hypotheses ar< correct, that populations tend to concentrate rather than disperse as develop ment proceeds and that regional inequalities grow as a result, they throv some light on the growth of interregional conflicts which so characteriz< developing societies and which seem to persist in developed societies as well
In this connection it should be noted that many city politicians, business men, and some city planners have pressed for the expansion of cities evei while demographers, sociologists, and political scientists have become in creasingly concerned with the pathologies associated with urban living. Man; a Chamber of Commerce, eager to see a rise in the value of urban real estat and concerned with increasing the revenues of the municipal government has encouraged the establishment of new industries and new real estat developments.
Much of the debate over the advantages and disadvantages of high-densit; living has to do with the question of whether it is responsible for the poverty violence, and disease so typically found in crowded areas or whether poo people tend to move into areas which are already dense, since these are area in which opportunities for employment and higher income are most readil; found. There is also a long-standing debate between city lovers and city hater over the benefits and disadvantages of urban living. But even in this debate the most enthusiastic supporters of cities must admit that once a city ha are primary, and local resources and population density arc relatively less important.